Our city has mandatory composting. They have inspectors that check the loads of garbage and the waste management company gets fined if there is compostable material in there.
Our mayor is a dope smoking, anti-car bike rider, and wants the city to be the world's greenest city by 2020. I'm not a huge fan of the bike lanes because a lot of cyclists don't use them and use the road instead, even though the bike lane is right next to them, but I do like the recycling and composting stuff.
On a positive note, a high school kid has invented an array that is designed to clean up the large garbage patches in the ocean. The real issue is that the plastic breaks down so small that you can't filter it all out because you're getting all sea life then. Here's a link:
The Ocean Cleanup, developing technologies to extract, prevent and intercept plastic pollution
I have high hopes for htis.